CONTINENTAL & MILITIA FORCES IN THE SARATOGA CAMPAIGN APPENDICES

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CONTINENTAL & MILITIA FORCES IN THE SARATOGA CAMPAIGN APPENDICES

ORDERS-OF-BATTLE

APPENDIX 1 – The garrison of Fort Ticonderoga (as at June 28, 1777)

  • 1st New Hampshire Regiment (Cilley’s)
    [24 officers, 6 staff, 24 sergeants, 12 drummers, 193 men present fit, 88 present sick, 113 on command]
  • 2nd New Hampshire Regiment (Hale’s)
    [28 officers, 5 staff, 31 sergeants, 13 drummers, 212 men present fit, 58 present sick, 87 on command]
  • 3rd New Hampshire Regiment (Scammel’s)
    [20 officers, 5 staff, 25 sergeants, 15 drummers, 153 men present fit, 71 present sick, 126 on command]
  • Long’s New Hampshire Regiment
    [25 officers, 4 staff, 18 sergeants, 1 drummer, 91 men present fit, 38 present sick, 25 on command]
  • Jackson’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
    [5 officers, 1 staff, 11 sergeants, 3 drummers, 45 men present fit, 11 present sick, 22 on command]
  • Marshall’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
    [21 officers, 4 staff, 20 sergeants, 11 drummers, 126 men present fit, 36 present sick, 123 on command]
  • Francis’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
    [31 officers, 5 staff, 30 sergeants, 13 drummers, 206 men present fit, 49 present sick, 161 on command]
  • Brewer’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
    [24 officers, 5 staff, 21 sergeants, 10 drummers, 144 men present fit, 15 present sick, 92 on command]
  • Bradford’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
    [23 officers, 3 staff, 27 sergeants, 10 drummers, 265 men present fit, 17 present sick, 51 on command]
  • Whitcomb’s Rangers (2 companies)
    [6 officers, 6 sergeants, 3 drummers, 19 men present fit, 14 present sick, 2 on command]
  • Lee’s Rangers (1 company)
    [3 officers, 3 sergeants, 1

APPENDIX 2 – Herkimer’s forces at Oriskany (August 8, 1777)

Brigadier General Nicholas Herkimer

Scouts – 60-100 men

  • Oneida Indians

Tryon County Militia Brigade – 800 men

In order of march:

  • 1st (Canajoharie) Regiment – Colonel Ebenezer Cox
  • 2nd (Palatine) Regiment – Colonel Jacob Klock
  • 4th (Kingsland/German Flats) Regiment – Colonel Peter Bellinger
  • 3rd (Mohawk) Regiment – Colonel Frederick Fisher (Visscher)

[The Brigade was assembled by Herkimer calling out all able-bodied males aged between 16 and 60.]

APPENDIX 3 – Stark’s forces at Bennington (August 16, 1777)

Commander-in-Chief – Brigadier General John Stark

New Hampshire militia brigade

  • Lt Col Moses Nichols’ (5th) Regiment of New Hampshire Militia – 550 [called up at Winchester, on July 21]
  • Colonel Thomas Stickney’s (11th) Regiment of New Hampshire Militia – 150 [called up at Pembroke, on July 21]
  • Colonel David Hobart’s (12th) Regiment of New Hampshire Militia – 150 [called up at Plymouth, on July 21]
  • Hale’s (15th) Regiment of New Hampshire Militia –
  • Langdon’s Company of Light Horse volunteers – number unknown [formed from picked men of the NH Militia on July 21, these men were most likely serving as infantry at this time)
  • Additional New Hampshire militia – 1,000

Vermont militia regiments

  • Colonel Samuel Herrick’s Regiment – 300
  • Additional Vermont Rangers 200

Massachusetts militia regiments

  • Colonel Benjamin Simonds’ (2nd Berkshire County) Regiment of

Massachusetts Militia – number unknown

Continental Regiments

  • Warner’s Extra-Continental Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Safford) – 350 (150)

[The larger number may include the additional 200 Vermont Rangers, listed above, as Warner’s only had 173 men at Fort Ticonderoga at the end of June]

APPENDIX 4 – Lincoln’s forces at Fort Ticonderoga (September 18-22, 1777

Overall commander – Major General Benjamin Lincoln

Total number of troops involved in the actual raids was in excess of 2,000 (although Lincoln himself admitted that “the number sent out is far short of what I expected”).

Massachusetts Militia contingent:

  • Berkshire County (Colonel John Brown)
  • Hampshire County (Colonel Benjamin Ruggles Woodbridge)
  • Worcester County (Colonel Job Cushing)
  • Middlesex County (Colonel Samuel Bullard)
  • Suffolk County (Colonel Benjamin Gill)
  • Essex County (Colonel Samuel Johnson)
  • York County (Colonel Joseph Storer)

These units were formed by a draft, authorised on August 9, 1777, by which one in six men in every unit was required to serve for 90 days. Initially, the plan was to call for volunteers, but when insufficient men came forward, drafting by ballot took place. The troops were formed into companies of 68 men, keeping folk from the same area together, and there were eight companies in each “regiment” (officers were apparently also drafted). The contingent may have included one or more troops of “light horse”, but details are unclear; however, at least one Berkshire group was equipped as mounted infantry (though they were not cavalry in any sense).

New Hampshire contingent:

  • Warner’s Additional Continental Regiment
  • Whitcomb’s Rangers (2 companies)
  • Lee’s Rangers (1 company) – possibly attached to Warner’s Regiment

The above were all considered units of the Continental Army.

Vermont contingent:

  • Herrick’s Rangers (State troops)
  • Eastern Vermont Militia Regiment (Colonel Joseph Marsh)
  • Eastern Vermont Militia Regiment (Colonel Peter Olcott)

Herrick’s unit had been formed at Bennington on July 15, 1777, for up to six months’ service, from men who had fled south before Burgoyne’s advance. The two militia units were formed by a draft authorised on August 11, 1777, by which one half of Marsh’s and Olcott’s regiments were “called up” by either voluntary, or forcible enlistment. Olcott’s men (numbering at least two companies) did not reach the assembly point at Pawlet until the end of September, having been drafted late.

Brown’s column (Fort Ticonderoga): Whitcomb’s rangers; companies from Brown’s, Johnson’s, Woodbridge’s and Cushing’s, and from Warner’s, Herrick’s and Marsh’s.

Johnson’s column (Mount Independence): companies from Johnson’s and two other militia regiments, and the remainder of Warner’s under Lt. Col Samuel Safford.

Woodbridge’s column (Skenesborough): precise make-up unknown, but likely similar to that of the other two with small detachments from various units.

Lincoln’s column (Skenesborough): this force eventually numbered about 600 men, after late arrivals had reached Pawlet (a further 400 were left behind to guard stores).

In response to a request from Gates for Lincoln to join him with as many troops as possible, the bulk of these formations then went on to Stillwater, the Massachusetts Militia later forming Warner’s brigade. Only some of Herrick’s men appear to have returned to Pawlet.

Two further expeditions were launched from Pawlet prior to the end of the campaign. One, involving two companies of Olcott’s regiment, Whitcomb’s Rangers, and others unspecified (about 200 men in all, of whom 70+ were militia), and commanded by Whitcomb, was sent to cut off communications between Fort George and Fort Edward (later reduced to “scouting” Fort Edward) at the beginning of October. The other involved some of Herrick’s Rangers attacking the British rear guard as it left Fort Ticonderoga after the Convention, capturing men, horses, oxen and other military materials.]

APPENDIX 5 – Gates’ forces at Freeman’s Farm (September 19, 1777)

The Left Wing of the Army (Major General Benedict Arnold)

Morgan’s Corps (Colonel Daniel Morgan)

  • The Rifle Regiment, or Corps of Rifle men (Lieutenant Colonel Richard Butler)
  • The Corps of Light Infantry (Major Henry Dearborn)

Poor’s Brigade (Brigadier General Enoch Poor)

September 7: 1,292 all ranks fit and present; 356 sick, 153 on command, 7 on leave

  • 1st New Hampshire Regiment
  • 2nd New Hampshire Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel Winborn Adams)
  • 3rd New Hampshire Regiment

From August, this brigade also included:-

  • 2nd New York Regiment
  • 4th New York Regiment

From September, this brigade also included:-

  • Battalion of Connecticut militia (Colonel Thaddeus Cook)
  • Battalion of Connecticut militia (Colonel Jonathan Latimer)

[Both of these units were large, and consisted of detachments from several militia formations. They suffered the heaviest casualties of any units on September 19 and were later commended by Gates as “excellent regiments”.]

Learned’s Brigade (Brigadier General Ebenezer Learned)
September 7: 1,393 all ranks fit and present; 229 sick, 54 on command, 2 on leave

  • Bailey’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Jackson’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel John Brooks)
  • Wesson’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Battalion of Forces in the Service of the United States of America [formerly 1st Canadian Regiment] (Colonel James Livingston)

The Right Wing of the Army (Major General Horatio Gates)

Paterson’s Brigade (Brigadier General John Paterson)
September 7: 1,243 all ranks fit and present; 229 sick, 54 on command, 2 on leave

  • Marshall’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Francis’ Massachusetts Bay Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Tupper)
  • Brewer’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Bradford’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment

Nixon’s Brigade (Brigadier General John Nixon)
September 7: 1,270 all ranks fit and present, 307 sick, 167 on command, 4 on leave

  • Greaton’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Putnam’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Thomas Nixon’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Alden’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel William Stacey)
  • Vose’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Shepard’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Wigglesworth’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment (Major John Porter)
  • Bigelow’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment (Major David Bradish)
  • Battalion of Albany County, New York militia (Colonel Abraham Wemple)
  • Battalion of Albany County, New York militia (Colonel William Whiting)
  • Battalion of Dutchess & Ulster County, New York militia (Colonel Morris Graham)

APPENDIX 6 – Gates’ forces at Bemis Heights (October 7, 1777)

Headquarters troops – Morgan’s Corps (Colonel Daniel Morgan)

  • The Rifle Regiment or Corps of Rifle men, (Lieutenant Colonel Richard Butler)
  • The Corps of Light Infantry (Major Henry Dearborn)

The Left Wing of the Army (Major General Benedict Arnold)

[Whilst Arnold remained technically in command of this wing of the Northern Army, he was effectively superceded as 2-i-C on the arrival of Lincoln. Arnold was given leave to depart; however, he chose to remain, despite exercising no de facto authority over his former command.]

Poor’s Brigade (Brigadier General Enoch Poor)

  • 1st New Hampshire Regiment
  • 2nd New Hampshire Regiment (Captain John Drew)
  • 3rd New Hampshire Regiment
  • 2nd New York Regiment
  • 4th New York Regiment
  • Battalion of Connecticut militia, Colonel Thaddeus Cook
  • Battalion of Connecticut militia, Colonel Jonathan Latimer

Learned’s Brigade (Brigadier General Ebenezer Learned)

  • Bailey’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Jackson’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel John Brooks)
  • Wesson’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Battalion of Forces in the Service of the United States of America [ex-1st Canadian Regiment]

From October 7, this brigade also included:-

  • Battalion of New Hampshire militia (Colonel Stephen Evans)
  • Battalion of New Hampshire militia (Colonel Abraham Drake)

Schuyler’s (aka Ten Broeck’s) Brigade (Brigadier General Abraham Ten Broeck)

  • Several Battalions of Albany County, New York militia

Composed of draftees from 16 of the 17 regiments* of Albany County, New York militia, called to service on September 18 and mostly arrived by October 4, eventually numbering 1,300 officers and men.

[* The exception was Colonel Peter Vroman’s 15th Albany County Militia Regiment, as it had duties in the Schoharie Valley. ]

The Right Wing of the Army (Major General Benjamin Lincoln from September

25)

Paterson’s Brigade (Brigadier General John Paterson)

  • Marshall’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Francis’ Massachusetts Bay Regiment (Colonel Benjamin Tupper)
  • Brewer’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Bradford’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment

From October 3, this brigade also included:-

  • Battalion of south Berkshire County, Massachusetts militia (Colonel John Ashley)
  • Battalion of York County, Massachusetts militia (Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Storer)

Nixon’s Brigade (Brigadier General John Nixon)

  • Greaton’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Putnam’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Nixon’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Alden’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment

From October 4 this brigade included the following regiment; however, it remained in camp on October 7 and returned home on October 14:-

  • Battalion of Hampshire County, Massachusetts militia (Colonel Ezra May)

Glover’s Brigade (Brigadier General John Glover)

  • Vose’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Shephard’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment
  • Wigglesworth’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment (Major John Porter)
  • Bigelow’s Massachusetts Bay Regiment (Major David Bradish)
  • Battalion of Albany County, New York militia (“the First Regiment”), Colonel Abraham Wemple
  • Battalion of Albany County, New York militia (“the Second Regiment”), Colonel William Whiting
  • Battalion of Dutchess and Ulster County, New York militia, Colonel Morris Graham

Warner’s Massachusetts Militia Brigade (Brigadier General Jonathan Warner)

  • Battalion of Middle Berkshire County (Colonel John Brown)
  • Battalion of Middlesex County (Colonel Samuel Bullard)
  • Battalion of Suffolk County (Colonel Benjamin Gill)
  • Battalion of Hampshire County (Colonel Benjamin Woodbridge)
  • Battalion of Essex County (Colonel Samuel Johnson)

[This brigade arrived on September 24 and was made up of men drafted for the expedition against Fort Ticonderoga and Skenesboro’; only one of the Colonels was present, the other four units being commanded by a Lieutenant-Colonel or Major.]

Wolcott’s Brigade (Brigadier General Oliver Wolcott)

  • Battalion of Connecticut militia, Brigadier General Oliver Wolcott12

[This formation was present from October 4; whilst it was commanded in person by Wolcott, the battalion also included two Colonels, two Lieutenant-Colonels, two Majors and 34 company officers, together with 250 enlisted men.]

APPENDIX 7 – Militia forces with the Northern Army (June-October, 1777)

Whipple’s Brigade (Brigadier General William Whipple)

  • 3rd New Hampshire Militia Regiment (Colonel Jonathan Moulton)
    (place and date of call up not known)
  • 9th New Hampshire Militia Regiment (Colonel Daniel Moore)
    (called up at Lyndeborough on September 29)
  • 10th New Hampshire Militia Regiment (Colonel Joseph Welch)
    (called up at Candia, on September 27)
  • 13th New Hampshire Militia Regiment (Colonel Jonathon Chase)
    (called up at Cornish on September 22)
  • 16th New Hampshire Militia Regiment (Colonel Benjamin Bellows)
    (called up at Walpole, September 21)

Some regiments sent detachments, but at this point, it is not known to which other units they were attached.

  • New Hampshire Militia Regiment (Colonel Thomas Stickney, detachment commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Henry Cerrish)
  • Worcester County, Massachusetts Militia Regiment (Colonel Samuel Denny, detachment commanded by 2nd Major Asa Baldwin
  • Worcester County Massachusetts Militia Regiment (Colonel James Converse, company-sized detachments commanded by (1) Captain Asa Danforth and (2) Captain Joseph Cutler)
  • 6th Worcester County Massachusetts Militia Regiment (Colonel Job Cushing)
    [This last unit may have been attached to Brigadier General Warner’s brigade.)
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